Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie - Centralny System Uwierzytelniania
Strona główna

Biotechnology and Microbiology for Environmental Sustainability WF-OB-AUGUSTMICRO-ER
Wykład (WYK) Semestr letni 2022/23

Informacje o zajęciach (wspólne dla wszystkich grup)

Liczba godzin: 15
Limit miejsc: 5
Zaliczenie: Egzaminacyjny
Zakres tematów:

1. Introduction to microbiology and biotechnology – 4h (2h of lecture and 2h of classes)

Microbiology and biotechnology are two major disciplines of biology science. Biotechnology utilizes biological systems and living organisms, mainly microbes or their parts to develop or create different products. Thus, modern biotechnology based on microbiology. This lecture and exercises focuse on potential applications of biotechnology and, in particular, microbial biotechnology in environmental protection, agriculture, industry and various areas of life.

Lecture and exercises include the following issues:

- definition, historical background, scope and importance of microbiology and biotechnology;

- branches of microbiology and colours of biotechnology;

- perspectives of microbiology and biotechnology development;

- application of microbes, microbiological processes and biotechnology in environmental protection, agriculture, industry, food technology and medicine etc.

- overview of main areas of applications of microbial biotechnology:

- environmental and waste technologies for solving environmental problems like pollution control, removing toxic waste;

- renewable resources technologies – the use of renewable energy sources to generate a new one;

- biotransformation and bioconversion;

- fermentation technology;

- environmental monitoring through microorganism - biosensors;

2. Microorganisms in biotechnology - diversity of microorganisms - viruses, bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi - 2h (lecture and classes)

Microorganisms existing in various forms in different environments: soil, water, air, rhizosphere and plant tissues. Microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses have long been used by humans for different purposes, and recently, due to their diverse metabolic potentials they are considered to be excellent materials for biotechnology. This lecture and exercises provide basic information about selected groups of microorganisms, their morphology and physiology, and the possibility of their use in various types of bioprocesses.

Lecture and exercises include the following issues:

- origin and development of virology, general structure of animal and plant viruses, and bacteriophages, replication and transmission of viruses, importance of viruses in biotechnology;

- general characteristic of microorganisms - bacteria, cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, classification of bacteria; bacterial and fungal growth and metabolism;

- carbohydrate metabolism – aerobic and anaerobic respiration, fermentation and mechanism in different microorganism; industrial application of fermentation;

- microbes in extreme environments – special features and their biotechnological potential;

- role of microorganisms in natural and artificial systems;

3. Introduction to laboratory methods and techniques used in environmental microbiology and biotechnology – 4h (2h of lecture and 2h of classes)

This lcture and exercises introduce to the fundamental microbiology laboratory techniques include aseptic techniques, culturing techniques, enumerating and identifying different classes of microorganisms. These techniques are the base of advanced research and experiments used in biotechnology and to other branches of biology, including molecular biology, soil science, agriculture, etc.

Lecture and exercises include the following issues:

- introduction to Microbiology Good Laboratory Practices and Biosafety;

- principle and applications of important instruments (biological safety cabinets, autoclave, incubator, hot air oven, light microscope, pH meter, etc.) used in the microbiology laboratory;

- preparation of culture media for bacterial cultivation;

- different methods of sterilization;

- pure culture technique: streak plate, spread plate and pour plate methods;

- isolation, purification, microscopic observations, and enumeration of microorganisms;

- bacterial staining;

- genomic and plasmid DNA structure and isolation;

- polymerase chain reaction, types o PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis;

- gene transfer methods, GMOs

4. Soil Contamination and Risk Assessment; Soil (Bio)Remediation; Soil quality assessment based on microbial indicators – 4h (2h of lecture and 2h of classes)

Soil pollution and degradation is one of the major threats to soil’s ecological functions and to human health. Unfortunately, most soil pollution is due to human activities. Main anthropogenic sources of soil pollution are the chemicals used in industrial activities, domestic and municipal wastes (including wastewater), agrochemicals; and petroleum-derived products. Lecture and exercises serve as an introduction to soil contamination assessment and its direct and indirect impact on environment, ecology and human health.

Lecture and exercises include the following issues:

- soil pollution - definition, sources, and types of soil pollution (natural and anthropogenic causes - examples including natural ones from Iceland.);

- physicochemical and microbial characteristics of soil pollutants;.

- soil pollution from industrial waste, domestic waste, agricultural waste and agrochemical residues;

- detrimental effects of soil pollutants;

- concept of bioremediation (in-situ and ex-situ), biostimulation of naturally occurring microbial activities, bioaugmentation;

- solid and liquid phase bioremediation - land farming, phytoremediation, composting, bioventing, biosparging, bioreactors;

- remedial measures of soil pollution;

- concepts, principles, and components of soil quality;

- soil quality indicators (physical, chemical and biological); microbial indicators for soil quality;

- soil quality assessment - approaches and procedures of soil quality assessment;

- quality assessment of cultivated volcanic soils - soil surveys and databases from Iceland;

5. Water Pollution and Wastewater treatment by activated sludge – 4h (2h of lecture and 2h of classes)

Water pollution is defined as the contamination of a stream, river, lake, ocean or other stretch of water, reducing its quality and making it toxic to the environment and humans. It is any change in the physical, chemical or biological properties of water that ultimately leads to harmful consequences for any living organism. Water pollution harms the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems, leads to eutrophication, and has a very negative impact on public health. This lecture and exercises provide an introduction to water pollution, water quality assessment and control. They provide an overview of the main pollutants and their effects, present characteristics of wastewater (both municipal and industrial) and wastewater treatment.

Lecture and exercises include the following issues:

- definition and sources of water pollution;

- main types of pollutants and their sources – inorganic and organic chemicals, organic waste, infectious agents, sediments, plant nutrients, radioactive materials and heat/thermal pollution;

- main sources of pollution of streams, rivers, seas and oceans; microplastic as pollution;

- eutrophication – definition, types, and causes; role of phosphorus and nitrogen in eutrophication; process and control of eutrophication;

- consequences of eutrophication; prevention and minimizing effects of eutrophication;

- physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of domestic, industrial and agricultural wastewater;

- sewage and wastewater treatments systems; primary, secondary and tertiary treatments; biological treatment process - aerobic versus anaerobic; activated sludge treatment; microorganisms, protozoa and other organisms in activated sludge; microscopic examination of activated sludge – indicators of treatment process;

- monitoring methods of wastewater treatment process – DO, BOD, COD, pH, alkalinity, TSS, TDS, TOC;

- self-purification of natural water systems;

- water protection and conservation – solutions;

6. Air pollution and indoor air quality based on microbiological indicators – 4h (2h of lecture and 2h of classes)

Air pollution has significant effects on human health and the environment. Significant progress have been made in the past few decades to improve our understanding of the sources, chemical transformation, transport, deposition, and impacts of different pollutants. The purpose of this lecture and exercises is to deliver knowledge about atmospheric environment and air pollution, both outdoor and indoor, and air pollution control.

Lecture and exercises include the following issues:

- air pollution - natural and anthropogenic sources of pollution; types and classification of air pollutants; transport and diffusion of pollutants; methods of monitoring and control of air pollution, SO2, NOx, CO;

- volcanic activity and air pollution; effect on global warming and climate change – case studies from Iceland;

- control of air pollution - sustainable methods of preventing air pollution;

- composition of air microorganisms; microorganisms of enclosed spaces; air sampling procedures for bioaerosol monitoring - sedimentation and impaction methods; sick building syndrome (SBS);

- effect of air pollutants on human health (smog phenomenon), plants, animals and materials.

7. Biological control; integrated pest and weed management; Biological control agents – 4h (2h of lecture and 2h of classes)

Biological control is an important method of controlling weeds and insect pests of plants. Biological and integrated pest management are strategies that allow us to control pests in different ways and reduce the amount of chemical pesticides introduced into the

environment. This lecture and exercises introduce these two approaches and presents a wide range of biological control agents that can be used to control insect pests.

Lecture and exercises include the following issues:

- biological control and integrated pest management – definitions, concepts and scopes;

- history and evolution of biological control;

- introduction to insects and pests, pests life cycle, effect of the environmental conditions; monitoring and evaluation of pests economic damage threshold;

- types of biological control – classical, augmentative and conservation;

- biological control in practice; overview of biological control agents – entomopathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes, parasitic wasps and predatory mites - modes of transmission, methods of uses, symptoms of infection;

- microbiological preparations (e.g. biofertilizers and biopesticides ) as an example of reducing the use of chemicals;

- biological control as management technique for weeds and invasive plants (invasive nootka lupin in Iceland – a case study);

- biotechnological approaches for the control of insect pests in crop plants

- advantages and disadvantages of microbiological control;

8. Bioplastics-classification, production and applications; What is bioplastic and how it can be prepared at home (laboratory) - 4h (2h of lecture and 2h of classes)

Bioplastics are biodegradable materials that come from renewable sources and are being promoted as an alternative to plastics, which pose a serious problem and threat to the environment. They are natural products synthesized and catabolized by various organisms, so they have also found widespread biotechnological applications. Their advantage is that they decompose to CO2, H2O and biomass and can be assimilated by many species (biodegradable), so they do not cause toxic effects on the environment.

Lecture and exercises include the following issues:

- plastics versus bioplastics – definitions, production, types, applications

- polymers and polymerization;

- biopolymers – bacterial and biobased polymers;

- biodegradable and compostable plastics;

- project - preparation of bioplastic from renewable sources

Metody dydaktyczne:

lecture, assignment method, self-instruction method, case study

Grupy zajęciowe

zobacz na planie zajęć

Grupa Termin(y) Prowadzący Miejsca Liczba osób w grupie / limit miejsc Akcje
1 co druga środa (nieparzyste), 13:15 - 14:45, sala 021
Anna Augustyniuk-Kram 0/5 szczegóły
Wszystkie zajęcia odbywają się w budynku:
Kampus Wóycickiego Bud. 24
Opisy przedmiotów w USOS i USOSweb są chronione prawem autorskim.
Właścicielem praw autorskich jest Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie.
ul. Dewajtis 5,
01-815 Warszawa
tel: +48 22 561 88 00 https://uksw.edu.pl
kontakt deklaracja dostępności USOSweb 7.0.3.0-1 (2024-04-02)